Normal Anatomy of the Hip Joint
The hip joint is a weight-bearing joint which connects the lower extremities to the pelvis. This makes the hip a pivotal component in the body’s overall flexibility and motion. The hip joint is divided into two main parts; these are the femoral head, which is the rounded end at the top of your femur, and the acetabulum, which is the pelvic socket into which the femoral head fits.
Femoro Acetabular Impingement (FAI)
Femoroacetabular Impingement, or FAI, is a common clinical condition in which bone abnormalities create excessive friction between the two components of the hip joint (femoral head and the acetabulum). The rubbing that occurs from a FAI is especially evident when the hip is flexed or rotated. The most common symptoms of FAI are severe hip pain and cartilage deterioration.
Hip Labral Tear
The labrum is an essential stabilizing structure located on the femoral head, whose primary function is to increase the surface area of the hip joint (distributing pressure). Unfortunately, the labrum is susceptible to trauma and the development of lesions. Labral injuries are common in athletes that endure repeated physical stress, but can also occur in a single instance of trauma.
Osteoarthritis of the Hip
Like other weight-bearing joints in the body, hips are at significant risk of developing osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint refers to progressive degeneration of the labrum and other cartilage tissues, which cover the rounded head of the femur. These tissues facilitate movement of the joint. Thus, when cartilage is worn down, patients will experience swelling, reduced mobility and chronic pain.
The hip joint establishes a connection between the lower extremities and the pelvic bone. A hip fracture generally refers to a fracture that occurs in the upper section of the femur bone. The type of fracture and its particular location on the bone will determine the appropriate treatment.
Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical enhancement for procedures conducted within the hip. It allows surgeons to treat various degenerative conditions that affect the hip joint, through offering them a high definition image of the inside of the hip. Arthroscopic surgery has become one of the most widely used procedures for surgeries due to its low-impact and revolutionary benefits it provides for hip, knee, shoulder and other operations.
Total Hip Replacement (THR)
A total hip replacement is a surgical procedure that replaces the hip joint in its totality, including the acetabulum (socket) and the head of the femur (ball). Total hip replacements are recommended when a degenerative joint disease has worn down most of the joint’s cartilage tissue and the patient experiences chronic pain when flexing and extending their legs.
Direct Anterior Hip Replacement
The Direct Anterior Approach, or DAA, of hip replacement surgery is a less invasive and destructive version of traditional hip replacement surgery. In cases that allow for Direct Anterior Hip Replacement, surgeons can operate between muscles, rather than tearing into them to create the necessary space to operate on the hip. DAA has comparable rates of success with a notably quicker recovery period.
Hip Resurfacing is an exceptional surgical technique that offers an alternative solution for patients that are not qualified for, or do not wish to pursue a traditional total hip replacement procedure. Rather than replace both the femoral head (ball) and acetabulum (socket) of the hip entirely, the hip resurfacing technique only shaves off the damaged tissue of the femoral head and replaces the acetabulum. This provides certain advantages over total hip replacement for patients that are candidates for hip resurfacing.
Revision Hip Replacement
The various hip-replacement surgical techniques each offer distinct advantages and disadvantages; however, no technique is perfect, and, over time, hip replacements wear out. In these cases, a revision surgery might be necessary in order to correct the deterioration of the implant. According to most estimates, over half of all hip replacements will need to be revised after 20 years.